NATURE OF OPERATIONS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|NATURE OF OPERATIONS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 1 – NATURE OF OPERATIONS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of Operations
Duos Technologies Group, Inc. (the “Company”), through its operating subsidiaries, Duos Technologies, Inc. (“Duos”) and TrueVue360, Inc. (“TrueVue360”) (collectively the “Company”), develops and deploys vision based analytical technology solutions that will help to transform precision railroading, logistics and inter-modal transportation operations. Additionally, these unique patented solutions can be employed into many other industries.
The Company has developed the Railcar Inspection Portal (RIP) that provides both freight and transit railroad customers and select government agencies the ability to conduct fully automated inspections of trains while they are in transit. The system, which incorporates a variety of sophisticated optical technologies, illumination and other sensors, scans each passing railcar to create an extremely high-resolution image set from a variety of angles including the undercarriage. These images are then processed through various methods of artificial intelligence (“AI”) algorithms to identify specific defects and/or areas of interest on each railcar. This is all accomplished within minutes of a railcar passing through our portal. This solution has the potential to transform the railroad industry by increasing safety, improving efficiency and reducing costs. The Company has successfully deployed this system with several Class 1 railroad customers and anticipates an increased demand in the future. Government agencies can conduct digital inspections combined with the incorporated AI to improve rail traffic flow across borders which also directly benefits the Class 1 railroads through increasing their velocity.
The Company has also developed the Automated Logistics Information System (ALIS) which automates and reduces/removes personnel from gatehouses where trucks enter and exit large logistics and intermodal facilities. This solution also incorporates sensors and data points as necessary for each operation and directly interconnects with backend logistics databases and processes to streamline operations and significantly improve operations and security and importantly dramatically improves the vehicle throughput on each lane on which the technology is deployed.
The Company has built a portfolio of IP and patented solutions that creates “actionable intelligence” using two core native platforms called Centraco® and Praesidium™. All solutions provided include a variant of both applications. Centraco is designed primarily as the user interface to all our systems as well as the backend connection to third-party applications and databases through both Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) and Software Development Kits (SDKs). This interface is browser based and hosted within each one of our systems and solutions. It is typically also customized for each unique customer and application. Praesidium typically resides as middleware in our systems and manages the various image capture devices and some sensors for input into the Centraco software.
The Company also developed a proprietary Artificial Intelligence (AI) software platform, Truevue360™ with the objective of focusing the Company’s advanced intelligent technologies in the areas of AI, deep machine learning and advanced multi-layered algorithms to further support our solutions.
Through September 30, 2021, the Company also provided professional and consulting services for large data centers and had developed a system for the automation of asset information marketed as DcVue™. The Company had deployed its DcVue software at one beta site. This software was used by Duos’ consulting auditing teams. DcVue was based upon the Company’s OSPI patent which was awarded in 2010. The Company offered DcVue available for license to our customers as a licensed software product.
The Company’s strategy is to deliver operational and technical excellence to our customers, expand our RIP and ALIS solutions into current and new customers focused in the Rail, Logistics and U.S. Government Sectors, offer both CAPEX and OPEX pricing models to customers that increases recurring revenue, grows backlog and improves profitability, responsibly grow the business both organically and through selective acquisitions, and promote a performance-based work force where employees enjoy their work and are incentivized to excel and remain with the Company.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
Reverse Stock Split
All share and per share amounts have been presented to give retroactive effect to a 1-for-14 reverse-stock split that occurred in January 2020.
The Company reclassified certain operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2020 to conform to 2021 classification. There was no net effect on the total expenses of such reclassification.
The following table reflects the reclassification adjustment effect for the year ended December 31, 2020:
The Company reclassified inventory on the consolidated balance sheet for the year ended December 31, 2020 to conform to 2021 classification. During the year ended December 31, 2020, inventory had been presented on the consolidated balance sheet within “Prepaid expenses and other current assets.” There was no net effect on total current assets.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Duos Technologies, Inc. and TrueVue360, Inc. All inter-company transactions and balances are eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The most significant estimates in the accompanying consolidated financial statements include the allowance on accounts receivable, valuation of deferred tax assets, valuation of intangible and other long-lived assets, estimates of net contract revenues and the total estimated costs to determine progress towards contract completion, estimates of the valuation of right of use assets and corresponding lease liabilities, valuation of warrants issued with debt and valuation of stock-based awards. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Cash is maintained at financial institutions and at times, balances may exceed federally insured limits. We have not experienced any losses related to these balances. As of December 31, 2021, balance in one financial institution exceeded federally insured limits by approximately $656,000.
Significant Customers and Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company had certain customers whose revenue individually represented 10% or more of the Company’s total revenue, or whose accounts receivable balances individually represented 10% or more of the Company’s total accounts receivable, as follows:
For the year ended December 31, 2021 one customer accounted for 83% of revenues. For the year ended December 31, 2020, two customers accounted for 45% and 23% of revenues. In all cases, there are no minimum contract values stated. Each contract covers an agreement to deliver a rail inspection portal which, once accepted, must be paid in full, with 30% or more being due and payable prior to delivery. The balances of the contracts are for service and maintenance which is paid annually in advance with revenues recorded ratably over the contract period. Each of the customers referenced has the following termination provisions:
At December 31, 2021, two customers accounted for 81% and 10% of accounts receivable. At December 31, 2020, two customers accounted for 56% and 30% of accounts receivable. Much of the credit risk is mitigated since all of the customers listed here are Class 1 railroads with a history of timely payments to us.
Approximately 86% and 51% of revenue in 2021 and 2020, respectively, is generated from customers outside of the United States.
Significant Vendors and Concentration of Credit Risk
At December 31, 2021, one vendor accounted for 14% of accounts payable. At December 31, 2020, one vendor accounted for 36% of accounts payable.
Two suppliers accounted for approximately 21% of total purchases for the year ended December 31, 2021. One supplier accounted for approximately 11% of total purchases for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments and Fair Value Measurements
The Company follows Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” (“ASC 820”), for assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis. ASC 820 establishes a common definition for fair value to be applied to existing generally accepted accounting principles that requires the use of fair value measurements, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure about such fair value measurements.
ASC 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Additionally, ASC 820 requires the use of valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.
These inputs are prioritized below:
The Company analyzes all financial instruments with features of both liabilities and equity under the Financial Accounting Standard Board’s (“FASB”) accounting standard for such instruments. Under this standard, financial assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The estimated fair value of certain financial instruments, including accounts receivable, prepaid expense, accounts payable, accrued expenses and notes payable are carried at historical cost basis, which approximates their fair values because of the short-term nature of these instruments.
Accounts receivable are stated at estimated net realizable value. Accounts receivable are comprised of balances due from customers net of estimated allowances for uncollectible accounts. In determining the collections on accounts, historical trends are evaluated, and specific customer issues are reviewed to arrive at appropriate allowances. The Company reviews its accounts to estimate losses resulting from the inability of its customers to make required payments. Any required allowance is based on specific analysis of past due accounts and also considers historical trends of write-offs. Past due status is based on how recently payments have been received from customers.
Inventory consists primarily of spare parts and consumables to be used in the production of our technology systems or in connection with maintenance agreements with customers. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Inventory cost is primarily determined using the weighted average cost method.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided by the straight-line method over the estimated economic life of the property and equipment (3 three to 5 five years). When assets are sold or retired, their costs and accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the accounts and any gain or loss resulting from their disposal is included in the statement of operations. Leasehold improvements are expensed over the shorter of the term of our lease or their useful lives.
Software Development Costs
Software development costs incurred prior to establishing technological feasibility are charged to operations and included in research and development costs. The technological feasibility of a software product is established when the Company has completed all planning, designing, coding, and testing activities that are necessary to establish that the product meets its design specifications, including functionality, features, and technical performance requirements. Software development costs incurred after establishing technological feasibility for software sold as a perpetual license, as defined within ASC 985-20 (Software – Costs of Software to be sold, Leased, or Marketed) are capitalized and amortized on a product-by-product basis when the product is available for general release to customers.
Patents and Trademarks
Patents and trademarks which are stated at amortized cost, relate to the development of video surveillance security system technology and are being amortized over 17 years.
The Company evaluates the recoverability of its property, equipment, and other long-lived assets in accordance with FASB ASC 360-10-35-15 “Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets”, which requires recognition of impairment of long-lived assets in the event the net book value of such assets exceed the estimated future undiscounted cash flows attributable to such assets or the business to which such intangible assets relate. This guidance requires that long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles be reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.
The Company has a 90-day warranty period for materials and labor after final acceptance of all projects. If any parts are defective they are replaced under our vendor warranty which is usually 12 to 36 months. Final acceptance terms vary by customer. Some customers have a cure period for any material deviation and if the Company fails or is unable to correct any deviations, a full refund of all payments made by the customer will be arranged by the Company. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the warranty costs have been de-minimis, therefore no accrual of warranty liability has been made.
Loan costs paid to lenders, or third parties are recorded as debt discounts to the related loans and amortized to interest expense over the loan term.
Our systems are sold as integrated systems and there are no sales returns allowed.
As of January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-89, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”), that affects the timing of when certain types of revenues will be recognized. The basic principles in ASC 606 include the following: a contract with a customer creates distinct unrecognized contract assets and performance obligations, satisfaction of a performance obligation creates revenue, and a performance obligation is satisfied upon transfer of control to a good or service to a customer.
Revenue is recognized by evaluating our revenue contracts with customers based on the five-step model under ASC 606:
For revenues related to technology systems, the Company recognizes revenue over time using a cost-based input methodology in which significant judgment is required to estimated costs to complete projects. These estimated costs are then used to determine the progress towards contract completion and the corresponding amount of revenue to recognize.
Accordingly, the Company now bases its revenue recognition on ASC 606-10-25-27, where control of a good or service transfers over time if the entity’s performance does not create an asset with an alternative use to the entity and the entity has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date including a profit margin or reasonable return on capital. Control is deemed to pass to the customer instantaneously as the goods are manufactured and revenue is recognized accordingly.
In addition, the Company has adopted ASC 606-10-55-21 such that if the cost incurred is not proportionate to the progress in satisfying the performance obligation, we adjust the input method to recognize revenue only to the extent of the cost incurred. Therefore, the Company will recognize revenue at an equal amount to the cost of the goods to satisfy the performance obligation. To accurately reflect revenue recognition based on the input method, the Company has adopted the implementation guidance as set out in ASC-606-10-55-187 through 192. (see Note 9)
Under this method, contract revenues are recognized over the performance period of the contract in direct proportion to the costs incurred. Costs include direct material, direct labor, subcontract labor and other allocable indirect costs. All un-allocable indirect costs and corporate general and administrative costs are also charged to the periods as incurred. Any recognized revenues that have not been billed to a customer are recorded as an asset in “contract assets”. Any billings of customers more than recognized revenues are recorded as a liability in “contract liabilities”. However, in the event a loss on a contract is foreseen, the Company will recognize the loss when such loss is determined.
Maintenance and technical support services are provided on both an as-needed and extended-term basis and may include providing both parts and labor. Maintenance and technical support provided outside of a maintenance contract are on an as-requested basis, and revenue is recognized as the services are provided. Revenue for maintenance and technical support provided on an extended-term basis is recognized ratably over the term of the contract.
For sales arrangements that do not involve multiple elements such as professional services, which are of short-term duration, revenues are recognized when services are completed.
The Company recognizes revenue from its IT asset management business in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 985-605-25 which addresses revenue recognition for the software industry. The general criteria for revenue recognition under ASC 985-605 for our Company, which sells software licenses, which do not require any significant modification or customization, is that revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the fee is fixed or determinable and collectability is probable.
The Company’s IT asset management business generates revenues from three sources: (1) Professional Services (consulting and auditing), (2) Software licensing with optional hardware sales and (3) Customer Service (training and maintenance support).
For sales arrangements that do not involve multiple elements:
The Company has begun to derive revenue from applications that incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) in the form of predetermined algorithms to provide important operating information to the users of our systems. The revenue generated from these applications of AI consists of an annual application maintenance fee which will be recognized ratably over the year, plus fees for the design, development, testing and incorporation of new algorithms into the system which will be recognized upon completion of each deliverable.
Arrangements with customers may involve multiple elements including project revenue and maintenance services in our Intelligent Technology Systems business. Maintenance will occur after the project is completed and may be provided on an extended-term basis or on an as-needed basis. In our consulting services business, multiple elements may include any of the above four sources. Training and maintenance on software products may occur after the software product sale while other services may occur before or after the software product sale and may not relate to the software product. Revenue recognition for a multiple element arrangement is as follows:
Each element is accounted for separately when each element has value to the customer on a standalone basis and there is Company specific objective evidence of selling price of each deliverable. For revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables, the Company allocates the total customer arrangement to the separate units of accounting based on their relative selling prices as determined by the price of the items when sold separately. Once the selling price is allocated, the revenue for each element is recognized using the applicable criteria under GAAP as discussed above for elements sold in non-multiple element arrangements. A delivered item or items that do not qualify as a separate unit of accounting within the arrangement are combined with the other applicable undelivered items within the arrangement. The allocation of arrangement consideration and the recognition of revenue is then determined for those combined deliverables as a single unit of accounting. The Company sells its various services and software and hardware products at established prices on a standalone basis which provides Company specific objective evidence of selling price for purposes of multiple element relative selling price allocation. The Company only sells maintenance services or spare parts based on its established rates after it has completed a system integration project for a customer. The customer is not required to purchase maintenance services. All elements in multiple element arrangements with Company customers qualify as separate units of account for revenue recognition purposes.
Deferred revenues represent billings or cash received in excess of revenue recognizable on service agreements that are not accounted for under the percentage of completion method. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, the balance of deferred revenue was $596,673 and $315,370, respectively. The amounts will be recorded to revenue over the next 12 months.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The Company is following the guidance of ASC 606-10-55-296 and 297 for disaggregation of revenue. Accordingly, revenue has been disaggregated according to the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows. We are providing qualitative and quantitative disclosures.
For the Year Ended December 31, 2021
For the Year Ended December 31, 2020
The Company expenses the cost of advertising. During the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, there were no advertising costs.
The Company accounts for employee stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718-10, “Share-Based Payment,” which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors including employee stock options, restricted stock units, and employee stock purchases based on estimated fair values.
Determining Fair Value Under ASC 718-10
The Company estimates the fair value of stock options granted using the Black-Scholes option-pricing formula. This fair value is then amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards, which is generally the vesting period. The Company’s determination of fair value using an option-pricing model is affected by the stock price as well as assumptions regarding the number of highly subjective variables.
The Company estimates volatility based upon the historical stock price of the Company and estimates the expected term for employee stock options using the simplified method for employees and directors and the contractual term for non-employees. The risk-free rate is determined based upon the prevailing rate of United States Treasury securities with similar maturities.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 740, Income Taxes, which requires the recognition of deferred income taxes for differences between the basis of assets and liabilities for financial statement and income tax purposes. The deferred tax assets and liabilities represent the future tax return consequences of those differences, which will either be taxable or deductible when the assets and liabilities are recovered or settled. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
The Company evaluates all significant tax positions as required by ASC 740. As of December 31, 2021, the Company does not believe that it has taken any positions that would require the recording of any additional tax liability nor does it believe that there are any unrealized tax benefits that would either increase or decrease within the next year.
Any penalties and interest assessed by income taxing authorities are included in operating expenses.
The federal and state income tax returns of the Company are subject to examination by the IRS and state taxing authorities, generally for three years after they were filed. Tax years 2018, 2019 and 2020 remain open for potential audit.
Basic earnings per share (EPS) are computed by dividing net loss applicable to common stock by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted net loss per common share is computed by dividing the net loss applicable to common stock by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period and, if dilutive, potential common shares outstanding during the period. Potential common shares consist of the incremental common shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options, stock warrants, convertible debt instruments, convertible preferred stock or other common stock equivalents. Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation if their effect is anti-dilutive. At December 31, 2021, there was an aggregate of 1,376,466 outstanding warrants to purchase shares of common stock. At December 31, 2021, there was an aggregate of employee stock options to purchase shares of common stock. At December 31, 2021, common shares were issuable upon conversion of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, all of which were excluded from the computation of dilutive earnings per share because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive. Also, at December 31, 2021, common shares were issuable upon conversion of Series C Convertible Preferred Stock, all of which were excluded from the computation of dilutive earnings per share because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive.
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The updated guidance requires lessees to recognize right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities for most operating leases. In addition, the updated guidance requires that lessors separate lease and non-lease components in a contract in accordance with the new revenue guidance in ASC 606. This guidance is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018.
The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2019, using the modified retrospective method, whereby a cumulative effect adjustment was made as of the date of initial application. The Company also applied the package of practical expedients to leases that commenced before the effective date whereby the Company elected to not reassess the following: (i) whether any expired or existing contracts contain leases and (ii) initial direct costs for any existing leases. The Company made an accounting policy election to not recognize short-term leases with terms of twelve months or less on the balance sheet and instead recognize the lease payments in expense as incurred. The Company has also elected to account for real estate leases that contain both lease and non-lease components as a single lease component.
The adoption of ASU 2016-02 did not materially affect our consolidated statement of operations or our consolidated statement of cash flows.
For contracts entered into on or after the effective date, at the inception of a contract the Company assesses whether the contract is, or contains, a lease. The Company’s assessment is based on: (1) whether the contract involves the use of a distinct identified asset, (2) whether we obtain the right to substantially all the economic benefit from the use of the asset throughout the period, and (3) whether it has the right to direct the use of the asset.
Operating ROU assets represent the right to use the leased asset for the lease term and operating lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. As most leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the lease commencement date to determine the present value of future payments. The lease term includes all periods covered by renewal and termination options where the Company is reasonably certain to exercise the renewal options or not to exercise the termination options. Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and is included in general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, the FASB or other standards setting bodies will issue new accounting pronouncements. Updates to the FASB ASC are communicated through issuance of an Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”).
In August 2020, the FASB issued an accounting pronouncement (ASU 2020-06) related to the measurement and disclosure requirements for convertible instruments and contracts in an entity's own equity. The pronouncement simplifies and adds disclosure requirements for the accounting and measurement of convertible instruments and the settlement assessment for contracts in an entity's own equity. This pronouncement is effective for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2023. We plan to adopt this pronouncement for our fiscal year beginning January 1, 2022, and we do not expect it to have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In May 2021, the FASB issued an accounting pronouncement (ASU 2021-04) related to modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options (such as warrants) that remain equity classified after modification or exchange. The pronouncement states that an entity should treat the modification as an exchange of the original instrument for a new instrument, and the effect of the modification should be calculated as the difference between the fair value of the modified instrument and the fair value of that instrument immediately before modification. An entity should then recognize the effect of the modification on the basis of the substance of the transaction, in the same manner as if cash had been paid as consideration. This pronouncement is effective for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2021. The pronouncement will be applied prospectively to all modifications that occur after the initial date of adoption. We plan to adopt this pronouncement for our fiscal year beginning January 1, 2022, and we do not expect it to have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material effect on the accompanying financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the business description and accounting policies concepts. Business description describes the nature and type of organization including but not limited to organizational structure as may be applicable to holding companies, parent and subsidiary relationships, business divisions, business units, business segments, affiliates and information about significant ownership of the reporting entity. Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef